In our pursuit of health (the state of being free from illness or injury) we discovered the magic of meditation, the wonderful benefits of prayer, and the infusion of mind, body, and spirit through the consumption of tea. In this pursuit, we have come across various writings, videos, and artistic presentations which can further these efforts. To be of additional service to you, we have compiled an assortment of these works which you may find helpful. Please enjoy as we have.
13 Proven Health Benefits of Walnuts
To say that walnuts are a nutritious food is a bit of an understatement.
Walnuts provide healthy fats, fiber, vitamins and minerals — and that’s just the beginning of how they may support your health.
In fact, there’s so much interest in this one nut that for the past 50 years, scientists and industry experts have gathered annually at the University of California, Davis, for a walnut conference discussing the latest walnut health research.
The most common variety of walnut is the English walnut, which is also the most studied type.
Here are 13 science-based health benefits of walnuts.
A preliminary, small study in healthy adults showed that eating a walnut-rich meal prevented oxidative damage of “bad” LDL cholesterol after eating, whereas a refined-fat meal didn’t (3Trusted Source).
SUMMARYWalnuts are an excellent source of antioxidants that can help fight oxidative damage in your body, including damage due to “bad” LDL cholesterol, which promotes atherosclerosis.
Omega-3 fat from plants, including walnuts, is called alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). It’s an essential fat, meaning you have to get it from your diet.
According to the Institute of Medicine, adequate intake of ALA is 1.6 and 1.1. grams per day for men and women respectively. A single serving of walnuts meets that guideline (8Trusted Source).
Observational studies have shown that each gram of ALA you eat per day lowers your risk of dying from heart disease by 10% (9Trusted Source).
SUMMARYWalnuts are a good source of the plant form of omega-3 fat, which may help reduce heart disease risk.
Inflammation is at the root of many diseases, including heart disease, type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease and cancer, and can be caused by oxidative stress.
The polyphenols in walnuts can help fight this oxidative stress and inflammation. A subgroup of polyphenols called ellagitannins may be especially involved (4Trusted Source).
Beneficial bacteria in your gut convert ellagitannins to compounds called urolithins, which have been found to protect against inflammation (5Trusted Source).
SUMMARYSeveral plant compounds and nutrients in walnuts may help decrease inflammation, which is a key culprit in many chronic diseases.
Studies suggest that if your gut is rich in health-promoting bacteria and other microbes (your gut microbiota), you’re more likely to have a healthy gut and good overall health.
An unhealthy composition of your microbiota can contribute to inflammation and disease in your gut and elsewhere in your body, increasing your risk of obesity, heart disease and cancer (12Trusted Source).
What you eat can significantly influence the makeup of your microbiota. Eating walnuts may be one way to support the health of your microbiota and your gut.
When 194 healthy adults ate 1.5 ounces (43 grams) of walnuts every day for eight weeks, they had an increase in beneficial bacteria, compared to a period of not eating walnuts (13Trusted Source).
This included an increase in bacteria that produce butyrate, a fat that nourishes your gut and promotes gut health (14Trusted Source).
SUMMARYEating walnuts not only nourishes you but also the beneficial bacteria that live in your gut. This promotes the health of your gut and may help reduce disease risk.
Test-tube, animal and human observational studies suggest that eating walnuts may reduce your risk of certain cancers, including breast, prostate and colorectal cancers (15Trusted Source, 16Trusted Source, 17Trusted Source).
Urolithins can have anti-inflammatory properties in your gut, which may be one way that eating walnuts helps protect against colorectal cancer. Urolithins’ anti-inflammatory actions could also help protect against other cancers (5Trusted Source).
What’s more, urolithins have hormone-like properties that enable them to block hormone receptors in your body. This may help reduce your risk of hormone-related cancers, specifically breast and prostate cancers (5Trusted Source).
More human studies are needed to confirm the effects of eating walnuts on decreasing the risk of these and other cancers, as well as to clarify all the ways or mechanisms by which they may help.
SUMMARYThe polyphenols in walnuts may reduce your risk of certain cancers, including breast, prostate and colorectal cancers. However, more human studies are needed to confirm this.
Walnuts are calorie dense, but studies suggest that the energy absorbed from them is 21% lower than would be expected based on their nutrients (19Trusted Source).
What’s more, eating walnuts may even help control your appetite.
In a well-controlled study in 10 obese people, drinking a smoothie made with about 1.75 ounces (48 grams) of walnuts once a day for five days decreased appetite and hunger, compared to a placebo drink equal in calories and nutrients (20Trusted Source).
Additionally, after five days of consuming the walnut smoothies, brain scans showed that the participants had increased activation in a region of the brain that helped them resist highly tempting food cues, such as cake and French fries.
Even though larger and longer-term studies are needed, this provides some initial insight as to how walnuts may help control appetite and weight.
SUMMARYThough they’re calorie-dense, you may not absorb all of the calories in walnuts. Additionally, they may even help you control appetite and hunger.
Observational studies suggest that one reason walnuts are linked to a lower risk of type 2 diabetes is that they help control weight. Excess weight increases your risk of high blood sugar and diabetes (21Trusted Source).
Yet, eating walnuts may help control blood sugar by mechanisms beyond their influence on weight control.
In a controlled study in 100 people with type 2 diabetes, consuming 1 tablespoon of cold-pressed walnut oil a day for 3 months, while continuing their usual diabetes medication and balanced diet, resulted in an 8% decrease in fasting blood sugar (22Trusted Source).
Additionally, the walnut oil users had about an 8% decrease in hemoglobin A1C (3-month average blood sugar). The control group showed no improvement in A1C or fasting blood sugar. Neither group had a change in their weight.
SUMMARYEating walnuts may help control type 2 diabetes and reduce your risk of the disease, as the nut may help control your weight. Walnuts might have more direct effects on blood sugar control as well.
High blood pressure is a major risk factor for heart disease and stroke.
Some studies suggest that eating walnuts may help lower blood pressure, including in people with high blood pressure and in healthy people when under stress. Other studies did not observe this effect (23Trusted Source, 24Trusted Source, 25Trusted Source).
Among other diets, the four-year PREDIMED study in about 7,500 adults at high risk of heart disease tested a Mediterranean diet supplemented with 1 ounce (28 grams) of mixed nuts daily, of which half were walnuts.
At the end of the study, people on the nut-enriched Mediterranean diet had a 0.65 mmHg greater decrease in diastolic blood pressure (bottom number) than people on a similar heart-healthy control diet who weren’t given nuts (25Trusted Source).
This suggests that nuts may slightly improve the blood pressure benefits of a heart-healthy diet. This is important, as small differences in blood pressure are thought to have a big impact on your risk of heart disease death (25Trusted Source).
SUMMARYSome studies suggest that eating 1 ounce (28 grams) of nuts daily, including walnuts, as part of a heart-healthy diet may help improve blood pressure.
As you age, good physical functioning is essential for maintaining your mobility and independence.
One thing that may help maintain your physical abilities is healthy eating habits.
In an observational study over 18 years in more than 50,000 older women, scientists found that those with the healthiest diets had a 13% lower risk of physical impairment. Walnuts were among the foods that made the strongest contribution to a healthy diet (26Trusted Source).
SUMMARYA healthy diet that includes walnuts may help preserve physical function, such as walking and self-care abilities as you age.
It may be just a coincidence that the shell of a walnut looks like a tiny brain, but research suggests that this nut may indeed be good for your mind (1Trusted Source).
Animal and test-tube studies found that the nutrients in walnuts, including polyunsaturated fat, polyphenols and vitamin E, may help reduce oxidative damage and inflammation in your brain (28Trusted Source).
In a 10-month study of Alzheimer’s disease, mice fed 6–9% of their calories as walnuts (equal to 1–1.5 ounces or 28–45 grams daily in people) had significant improvements in learning skills, memory and anxiety reduction, compared to a walnut-free control group (29Trusted Source).
Though these results are encouraging, more studies testing the effects of walnuts on brain function in humans are needed to draw firm conclusions.
SUMMARYWalnuts contain nutrients that may help protect your brain from damaging inflammation and support good brain function as you age.
Typical Western diets — high in processed foods, sugar and refined grains — have been linked to reduced sperm function (30Trusted Source).
Eating walnuts may help support sperm health and male fertility.
When 117 healthy young men included 2.5 ounces (75 grams) of walnuts daily in their Western-style diet for three months, they had improved sperm shape, vitality and mobility, compared to men not eating nuts (31Trusted Source).
Animal research suggests that eating walnuts may help protect sperm by reducing oxidative damage in their membranes (30Trusted Source).
Further studies are needed to confirm these benefits, but if you’re a man concerned about fertility, eating walnuts is a simple thing to try.
SUMMARYEating walnuts regularly may help counteract potential harmful effects of less-than-ideal eating habits on sperm health.
Elevated levels of “bad” LDL cholesterol and triglycerides have long been linked to an increased heart disease risk.
Regularly eating walnuts has been consistently shown to decrease cholesterol levels (32Trusted Source).
For example, in a recent study in 194 healthy adults, eating 1.5 ounces (43 grams) of walnuts daily for eight weeks produced a 5% decrease in total cholesterol, 5% decrease in LDL cholesterol and 5% decrease in triglycerides, compared to not eating walnuts (33Trusted Source).
The walnut eaters also had nearly a 6% decrease in apolipoprotein-B, which is an indicator of how many LDL particles are in your blood. When elevated, apolipoprotein-B is a major risk factor for heart disease (33Trusted Source).
SUMMARYA daily 1.5-ounce (43-gram) serving of walnuts may help lower harmful cholesterol and triglyceride levels, which contribute to heart disease risk.
You can find walnuts in any grocery store. Check for raw walnuts in the baking aisle, roasted walnuts in the nut aisle and cold-pressed walnut oil in the specialty oils section.
It’s helpful to understand how to convert the serving sizes used in studies, so you know how your portion sizes compare.
Each of the following are essentially equivalent servings, providing about 190 calories:
- 1 ounce shelled walnuts = 28 grams = 1/4 cup = 12–14 halves = 1 small handful (6).
Though it’s simplest to eat walnuts one by one as a snack, there are plenty of tasty ways to use them in dishes.
- Sprinkled on leafy green or fruit salads.
- Finely ground in dips and sauces.
- Chopped and used in whole-grain breads and scones.
- Crushed to use as a coating on fish or chicken.
- Served atop oatmeal or yogurt.
- Chopped and added to wraps or pita sandwiches.
- Roasted and added to a homemade trail mix.
- Lightly browned in your favorite stir-fry recipe.
- Roasted, chopped and used on pasta or vegetables.
- As an oil in a vinaigrette dressing.
- Or scout the Internet for additional tasty recipe ideas.
If you’re cooking for guests, make sure no one is allergic to walnuts before adding them to your dishes.
SUMMARYWalnuts are easy to add to your diet since they’re widely available in stores and a great addition to countless dishes.
Walnuts are an exceptionally nutritious nut. They have higher antioxidant activity and significantly more healthy omega-3 fats than any other common nut.
This rich nutrient profile contributes to the many health benefits associated with walnuts, such as reduced inflammation and improved heart disease risk factors.
Scientists are still uncovering the many ways that walnuts’ fiber and plant compounds, including polyphenols, may interact with your gut microbiota and contribute to your health.
It’s likely you’ll keep hearing more about walnuts in the years to come as more studies will research their beneficial health effects.
Still, there are plenty of reasons to include them in your diet already today.
Since the year 2001, Life Extension® has been seeking a way to reverse a mechanism of aging that may not be adequately addressed by the healthy lifestyle choices most members currently follow.
Normal aging is accompanied by a noticeable increase in fatigue and loss of motivation. The tiredness we outwardly feel reflects inward impairment of cellular functions critical to sustaining life.
NAD+ is the term used in the scientific literature to describe a cellular compound called nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide.
NAD+ is found in every cell in the body and is essential to life.1,2 NAD+ enables the transfer of energy from the foods we eat to vital cell functions. It is also required to “turn off” genes that accelerate degenerative aging processes.3,4
WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW
- A major advance in “systemic anti-aging medicine” is now available for supplementation in humans.
- Nicotinamide riboside is a “next-generation” form of vitamin B3 that supports the vitamin’s functions throughout the body by boosting levels of a key metabolic cofactor called NAD+.
- NAD+ is found in every single cell in the body, and is an absolute requirement for normal, efficient, and safe energy transfer from food to tissues.
- New discoveries show that NAD+ is also essential for silencing genes for proteins that accelerate aging, such as those involved in inflammation, in fat synthesis and storage, and in blood sugar management.
- Supporting NAD+ levels with nicotinamide riboside supplementation extends life span in laboratory organisms, while boosting energy, physical performance, and cognition in aging animals.
- To fight aging throughout your body by restoring youthful function of basic life-sustaining processes in every single cell, begin regular supplementation today with nicotinamide riboside.
As NAD+ levels decline, mitochondrial function is impaired, resulting in fewer mitochondria surviving.3,5 This vicious cycle of mitochondrial depletion results in many of the physical symptoms of aging.
The challenge we at Life Extension have faced over the past 13 years is finding an efficient way for aging humans to affordably boost their NAD+ cellular levels.
In 2001, one of our researchers developed an effective NAD+ boosting sublingual lozenge, but it only maintained stability for a short time period. As you’ll read in this article, an effective NAD+ cell boosting technology has finally become available.
Prominent universities have been investigating NAD+ as a potential therapy for age-related degenerative disease.6 Compelling research shows that NAD+ has a unique ability to protect tissues, induce DNA repair, and increase life span.2,7,8
It has long been known that NAD+ plays an important role in transferring energy released from glucose and fatty acids to the mitochondria so that it can be converted into cellular energy.2,9 Without sufficient NAD+, energy transfer in the cells breaks down, resulting in age-accelerating mitochondrial dysfunction.5,10,11
NAD+ is an essential cofactor of key enzymes responsible for longevity called sirtuins.5,12,13 While resveratrol is well known for sirtuin activation, evidence indicates it does so indirectly,14,15 whereas NAD+ directly activates sirtuins to regulate the genes of aging.2,16
Sirtuins, specifically SIRT1 and SIRT3, are intimately related to longevity through their control of gene expression and require NAD+ for their activity.2,3,10,17-19
Research into the sirtuins continues to yield substantial information on how to control aging. By activating these sirtuins, we’re able to gain control over one of our body’s anti-aging “switches.” SIRT enzymes “turn off” certain genes that promote aging, such as those involved in inflammation,20,21 in fat synthesis and storage,22,23 and in blood sugar management.3,22,23
SIRT enzymes are activated by calorie restriction, the proven means of reliably extending life span in all organisms.2,24 The way calorie restriction activates anti-aging sirtuins is by increasing cellular NAD+.2,25,26
Consequences Of Falling NAD+ Levels
NAD+ is found in every single cell in the body,1 and is essential for efficient energy transfer from foods to tissues. NAD+ is also required for turning off genes that accelerate aging.4
From a cellular energy standpoint, lower levels of NAD+ reduce mitochondrial function, with fewer energy-rich ATP molecules being produced, and fewer mitochondria produced.5,11 This vicious cycle results in many of the physical symptoms of aging.
The age-related decrease in NAD+ causes defects in both energy- and gene-related functions to accumulate. These defects feed on one another to produce the disorders we typically identify as aging.10 The consequences of a decline in NAD+ levels and subsequent reduction in SIRT 1 and SIRT 3 enzymes are:
- Neurodegeneration in the brain,10,27,28
- Vascular inflammation, producing damage to blood vessels that can result in stroke or heart attack, 27,29,30
- Increased fat storage in the liver, which can lead to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD),31-33
- Increased fat production and deposition in white adipose tissue, the primary fat storage form found in dangerous belly fat,34,35
- Insulin resistance, preventing cells from appropriately removing glucose from blood, producing higher blood sugar levels and leading directly to metabolic syndrome,30,36,37
- Fatigue, loss of muscle strength, and fatty infiltration of muscles, resulting in reduced fatty acid oxidation (“burning”), thereby depriving muscles of their normal sources of energy.38,39
To avoid these degenerative processes, it is essential that steps be taken to optimize the amount of NAD+ in our bodies.
By increasing intracellular NAD+ levels, age-related mitochondrial dysfunction can be reversed.5 One of the ways to accomplish this is by engaging in major calorie restriction, which has been proven to raise NAD+ levels and in experimental organisms tested to date, to extend life span.5,25 But most people find significant calorie restriction to be nearly impossible in practice.
Fortunately, a method has been developed to increase NAD+ levels without having to alter dietary patterns, though Life Extension remains a strong advocate of calorie restriction for those able to consistently do it.
A Natural NAD+ Booster
Researchers have discovered a form of vitamin B3 that converts in the body to NAD+.40,41
Vitamin B3 is involved in over 400 enzymatic reactions throughout the body and is essential for production and management of cellular energy.42 A new patented form of this vitamin called nicotinamide riboside has been found to increase NAD+ levels and in the process, provide an extraordinary range of longevity benefits that promises to change how we combat aging.
Directly boosting NAD+ with nicotinamide riboside presents a new and effective strategy for preventing the natural decline in cellular energy as we age by promoting youthful vitality.
Studies have shown that nicotinamide riboside switches “off” the genes of aging, extends life span, increases endurance, improves cognitive function, activates sirtuins, and enhances cellular energy.3,43 These benefits add up to a system-wide slowing and reversal of certain aging processes. Nicotinamide riboside accomplishes this NAD+ boosting effect without the irritating skin flushing and rash caused by the standard forms of vitamin B3.41
Initial Studies On Nicotinamide Riboside
In their investigations into the effects of nicotinamide riboside on life span, scientists used a strain of yeast known to have a relatively short average life span of about 8.3 generations.3,44 When the yeast was treated with nicotinamide riboside, the average life span nearly doubled, to 16.1 generations. On this model of life span extension, ordinary vitamin B3 had no effect compared to the dramatic longevity benefit shown with nicotinamide riboside.3
Nicotinamide riboside is a dynamic compound that works through multiple mechanisms to promote life extension. Most dramatic are its effects on longevity and metabolism, as shown by recent laboratory studies.
One critical mechanism in oxygen-consuming organisms is mitochondrial function.45 Mitochondria, the tiny, intracellular “furnaces” that power cellular processes, are sites of intense electrical and chemical activity.46,47 They can readily “burn out,” contributing to the aging of tissues, and hence, of organs and entire organisms.
In a model commonly used to study life span modifications, the roundworm C. elegans could be made to survive as much as 16% longer when supplemented with nicotinamide riboside. This life span extension was demonstrated to result from a roughly 50% increase in healthy mitochondrial oxygen consumption, a measure of mitochondrial efficiency.48
These benefits are what one would predict from nicotinamide riboside supplementation, which raises levels of the NAD+ needed to safely move electrons through the mitochondria.43 We have long known that ineffective mitochondrial electron transport is an age-accelerating process.43,49,50
When pursuing additional lab studies, scientists found that supplementing mice with nicotinamide riboside reduced many dangerous factors of aging. The mice showed increased energy and improved insulin sensitivity, both factors indicating optimal vitality. In this study, scientists also demonstrated that nicotinamide riboside supplementation increased energy metabolism while protecting the animals against the metabolic abnormalities induced by a high-fat diet.43 For the study, the mice were fed a high-fat diet with either no supplementation (control), or nicotinamide riboside for 12 or 16 weeks.
On a treadmill test, the supplemented animals fed a high-fat diet ran more than 33% further than the control mice, demonstrating a dramatic increase in muscle endurance and performance.43
The supplemented mice also gained significantly less weight while on the high-fat diet compared to control animals. And in supplemented animals fed either the high-fat or a normal diet, insulin sensitivity (the ability to remove sugar efficiently from the blood) was greatly improved, compared with control animals.
Remarkably, these results were all attained without any differences in food intake or total physical activity between supplemented and control mice.43 The supplemented animals lost weight, performed better at exercise, and managed their blood glucose better purely as a result of nicotinamide riboside-induced increases in calorie-burning (measured by increased oxygen consumption rates). This was confirmed by the observation that when the supplemented mice were exposed to prolonged cold conditions, they had significantly less body temperature loss compared to controls, the result of increased conversion of calories to heat.
Detailed analysis of the mice in this study revealed that supplementation with nicotinamide riboside had produced a significant increase in essential NAD+ levels, resulting in the activation of the critical life span-extending enzymes SIRT1 and SIRT3.43 Supplementation with nicotinamide riboside also improved the numbers and function of mitochondria, the intracellular powerhouses that release energy from food; poor mitochondrial function is a known age-accelerator.
Nicotinamide Riboside Protects Brain Cells
As cases of dementia and Alzheimer’s reach epidemic proportions in the aging population, pharmaceutical companies are aggressively researching brain protective compounds.51,52 Nicotinamide riboside with its ability to directly increase NAD+ is providing promising brain benefits.
A recent lab study demonstrated the ability of nicotinamide riboside to protect brain cells in advanced age.9 For the study, mice engineered to develop Alzheimer’s disease were treated with nicotinamide riboside beginning at middle age (5 to 6 months) and lasting into old age (10 to 11 months).
The supplemented animals had significant improvements in their cognitive function in challenging laboratory tests of exploring new objects.9 This improvement was shown to be associated with significantly reduced brain levels of beta-amyloid plaques, the abnormal protein that triggers much of the neuronal death and dysfunction in Alzheimer’s disease. Intriguingly, supplementation had the added benefit of raising levels of the metabolic regulatory complex called PGC-1-alpha. Studies have shown that low levels of PGC-1-alpha have been associated with increased dangerous beta-amyloid deposition.9
The mechanisms by which these effects were achieved were found to include significant increases in brain levels of NAD+ (the result of supplementation with nicotinamide riboside), and consequently activated enzymes involved in cellular energy production and energy release from glucose.9
In a similar study of neuroprotection, nicotinamide riboside was shown to delay the degeneration of axons, the “communication cables” of nerve cells that carry impulses over long distances.53,54 When these communication cables deteriorate, tingling, weakness, numbness, and loss of motor function can occur as a result.55-57 The mechanism behind this benefit was shown to be a significant 20-fold increase in the enzyme that converts nicotinamide riboside to NAD+.54
Other studies in mammalian cells in culture demonstrate that nicotinamide riboside treatment increases NAD+ concentrations inside of cells by up to 2.7-fold,58 and that administering nicotinamide riboside can improve NAD+ related deficiencies in animal and yeast cells.24
“Restoring NAD+ by supplementing NAD+ intermediates can dramatically ameliorate these age-associated functional defects, counteracting many diseases of aging, including neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, the combination of sirtuin activation and NAD+ intermediate supplementation may be an effective anti-aging intervention, providing hope to aging societies worldwide.” 10
Researchers have discovered and patented a no-flush form of vitamin B3 that is revolutionizing the field of aging research.
Unlike earlier forms of this vitamin, nicotinamide riboside has been found to provide an extraordinary range of impressive longevity benefits that promise to change how science approaches the reduction of aging.
Studies have shown that nicotinamide riboside switches “off” the genes of aging, extends life span, increases endurance, improves cognitive function, activates sirtuins, and enhances cellular energy.
As we age, and our NAD+ levels dramatically decline, we begin to experience fatigue and are more susceptible to neurodegeneration and cellular dysfunction. What makes the nicotinamide riboside form of vitamin B3 so unique is that once it is processed by the body it immediately converts into the powerful molecule NAD+.
Nicotinamide riboside accomplishes this NAD+ boosting effect without the irritating skin flushing and rash caused by the standard forms of vitamin B3.
If you feel increasingly lethargic or unmotivated as you age, you can probably blame your falling NAD+ levels, which result in reduced cellular energy production.
Directly boosting NAD+ with nicotinamide riboside presents a new and effective strategy for preventing the natural decline in cellular energy as we age by promoting youthful vitality.
If you have any questions on the scientific content of this article, please call a Life Extension® Health Advisor at 1-866-864-3027.
HOW NAD+ DRIVES LONGEVITY-PROMOTING SIRT ENZYMES
SIRT enzymes regulate how genes are expressed from the DNA on our chromosomes in part by influencing chromosomal proteins called histones.59,60 Research indicates SIRT enzymes have a “slot” capable of binding to one NAD+ molecule and one chemical acetyl (AC) group from the histone. 61 This binding triggers the SIRT enzyme to remove the acetyl group and bind the histone proteins more closely to their DNA strands, thereby regulating the expression of genes.4,17,31,62 This is shown schematically below.
So, just as a coin in a parking meter slot adds time to the meter with each turn of the handle, a NAD+ molecule binding to a SIRT enzyme, with each “turn” of the enzymatic cycle, manipulates DNA expression in a way that adds time to one’s life!
NAD+ levels decline with aging and represent a fundamental, systemic cause of aging.5 Falling NAD+ levels mean fewer “coins” in the “parking meter” represented by SIRT enzymes, which in turn means reduced life span, as age-accelerating genes are expressed without regulation.
Nicotinamide riboside has been scientifically proven to maintain robust levels of NAD+ in cells, thereby both supporting vital cellular energy functions and activating the anti-aging enzymes SIRT1 and SIRT3.43,63 Research has demonstrated that nicotinamide riboside supplementation is capable of reversing many of the age-accelerating changes induced by falling NAD+ levels.43 This is why the discovery nicotinamide riboside is so essential for any serious longevity regimen.
- Busso N, Karababa M, Nobile M, et al. Pharmacological inhibition of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase/visfatin enzymatic activity identifies a new inflammatory pathway linked to NAD. PLoS One. 2008 May 21;3(5):e2267.
- Sauve AA. NAD+ and vitamin B3: from metabolism to therapies. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008 Mar;324(3):883-93.
- Belenky P, Racette FG, Bogan KL, McClure JM, Smith JS, Brenner C. Nicotinamide riboside promotes Sir2 silencing and extends lifespan via Nrk and Urh1/Pnp1/Meu1 pathways to NAD+. Cell. 2007 May 4;129(3):473-84.
- Imai S, Armstrong CM, Kaeberlein M, Guarente L. Transcriptional silencing and longevity protein Sir2 is an NAD-dependent histone deacetylase. Nature. 2000 Feb 17;403(6771):795-800.
- Gomes AP, Price NL, Ling AJ, et al. Declining NAD(+) induces a pseudohypoxic state disrupting nuclear-mitochondrial communication during aging. Cell. 2013 Dec 19;155(7):1624-38.
- Available at: http://investors.chromadex.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=212121&p=irol-newsarticle&id=1936672&highlight=. Accessed August 29, 2014.
- Satoh MS, Poirier GG, Lindahl T. NAD(+)-dependent repair of damaged DNA by human cell extracts. J Biol Chem. 1993 Mar 15;268(8):5480-7.
- Anderson RM, Bitterman KJ, Wood JG, et al. Manipulation of a nuclear NAD+ salvage pathway delays aging without altering steady-state NAD+ levels. J Biol Chem. 2002 May 24;277(21):18881-90.
- Gong B, Pan Y, Vempati P, et al. Nicotinamide riboside restores cognition through an upregulation of proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1alpha regulated beta-secretase 1 degradation and mitochondrial gene expression in Alzheimer’s mouse models. Neurobiol Aging. 2013 Jun;34(6):1581-8.
- Imai SI, Guarente L. NAD and sirtuins in aging and disease. Trends Cell Biol. 2014 Aug;24(8):464-71.
- Prolla TA, Denu JM. NAD+ deficiency in age-related mitochondrial dysfunction. Cell Metab. 2014 Feb 4;19(2):178-80.
- Villalba JM, Alcaín FJ. Sirtuin activators and inhibitors. Biofactors. 2012 Sep-Oct;38(5):349-59.
- Landry J, Sutton A, Tafrov ST, et al. The silencing protein SIR2 and its homologs are NAD-dependent protein deacetylases. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2000 May 23;97(11):5807-11.
- Price NL, Gomes AP, Ling AJ, et al. SIRT1 is required for AMPK activation and the beneficial effects of resveratrol on mitochondrial function. Cell Metab. 2012 May 2;15(5):675-90.
- Higashida K, Kim SH, Jung SR, Asaka M, Holloszy JO, Han DH. Effects of resveratrol and SIRT1 on PGC-1α activity and mitochondrial biogenesis: a reevaluation. PLoS Biol. 2013 Jul;11(7):e1001603.
- Canto C, Auwerx J. Targeting sirtuin 1 to improve metabolism: all you need is NAD(+)? Pharmacol Rev. 2012 Jan;64(1):166-87.
- Hirschey MD, Shimazu T, Huang JY, Schwer B, Verdin E. SIRT3 regulates mitochondrial protein acetylation and intermediary metabolism. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 2011;76:267-77.
- Chen Y, Fu LL, Wen X, et al. Sirtuin-3 (SIRT3), a therapeutic target with oncogenic and tumor-suppressive function in cancer. Cell Death Dis. 2014 Feb 6;5:e1047.
- Scher MB, Vaquero A, Reinberg D. SirT3 is a nuclear NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase that translocates to the mitochondria upon cellular stress. Genes Dev. 2007 Apr 15;21(8):920-8.
- Kotas ME, Gorecki MC, Gillum MP. Sirtuin-1 is a nutrient-dependent modulator of inflammation. Adipocyte. 2013 Apr 1;2(2):113-8.
- Gallí M, Van Gool F, Leo O. Sirtuins and inflammation: Friends or foes? Biochem Pharmacol. 2011 Mar 1;81(5):569-76.
- Li X, Kazgan N. Mammalian sirtuins and energy metabolism. Int J Biol Sci. 2011 Feb; 7(5):575-87.
- Chang HC, Guarente L. SIRT1 and other sirtuins in metabolism. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Mar;25(3):138-45.
- Lu SP, Kato M, Lin SJ. Assimilation of endogenous nicotinamide riboside is essential for calorie restriction-mediated life span extension in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2009 Jun 19;284(25):17110-9.
- Morris KC, Lin HW, Thompson JW, Perez-Pinzon MA. Pathways for ischemic cytoprotection: role of sirtuins in caloric restriction, resveratrol, and ischemic preconditioning. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2011 Apr;31(4):1003-19.
- Morselli E, Maiuri MC, Markaki M, et al. Caloric restriction and resveratrol promote longevity through the Sirtuin-1-dependent induction of autophagy. Cell Death Dis. 2010;1:e10.
- Sebastián C , Satterstrom FK,Haigis MC, Mostoslavsky R. From sirtuin biology to human diseases: an update. J Biol Chem. 2012 Dec 14;287(51):42444-52.
- Min SW, Sohn PD, Cho SH, Swanson RA, Gan L. Sirtuins in neurodegenerative diseases: an update on potential mechanisms. Front Aging Neurosci. 2013 Sep 25;5:53.
- Oellerich MF, Potente M. FOXOs and sirtuins in vascular growth, maintenance, and aging. Circ Res. 2012 Apr 27;110(9):1238-51.
- Haigis MC, Sinclair DA. Mammalian sirtuins: biological insights and disease relevance. Annu Rev Pathol. 2010;5:253-95.
- Kemper JK, Choi SE, Kim DH. Sirtuin 1 deacetylase: a key regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism. Vitam Horm. 2013;91:385-404.
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