Health

In our pursuit of health (the state of being free from illness or injury) we discovered the magic of meditation, the wonderful benefits of prayer, and the infusion of mind, body, and spirit through the consumption of tea.  In this pursuit, we have come across various writings, videos, and artistic presentations which can further these efforts.  To be of additional service to you, we have compiled an assortment of these works which you may find helpful.   Please enjoy as we have.


 

The Law of Empathy for Health and Well-Being by Anne Naylor & huffpost.com

The Law of Empathy for Health and Well-Being

Feelings of fear can hold you back from engaging in life, and deriving fulfillment from getting on with what is right in front of you.
This post was published on the now-closed HuffPost Contributor platform. Contributors control their own work and posted freely to our site. If you need to flag this entry as abusive, send us an email.
 

 

Last week, I started reading “Living the Spiritual Principles of Health and Well-Being” by Drs. John-Roger and Paul Kaye soon to be released with book signings in Europe.

The book offers practical wisdom presented in several sections. One section that particularly fascinated me is “Causes and Cures of Disease.” Many illnesses have an underlying emotional disturbance causing them, and in my own experience, that has certainly been the case. I hasten to add that blaming an emotional response for an illness does not further health and well-being. Quite the reverse.

In the book, one of the causes attributed to disease is fear. Its cure is empathy. What if there were no real source of fear, although the feeling of fear is real enough? Your mind and emotions create the feeling of fear through imagining, for example, the worst possible outcome. You may be drawn to news items which focus on negative scenarios. News agencies make their profit through our attraction to drama and what a friend calls “awful-ization.” It is your thoughts about a situation that produce feelings of fear.

One of my most memorable experiences of fear was the first time I was in an earthquake, in Carpenteria, California. I was on my own in a fairly large house which we had rented for a few months. When the earthquake was happening and the house was rolling around (well constructed for earthquake conditions) I enjoyed the movement. I was in bed around 4:30 a.m. When the movement stopped and my mind started imagining what might have happened if … the walls had come down, glass had fallen all over me, I ripped in to my feet with broken glass and so forth, I felt really scared. I was more shaken by my thoughts about it than by the event itself.

The Law of Empathy is the fifth spiritual law. The first is Acceptance, followed by Cooperation, then Understanding and Enthusiasm. Spiritual laws, unlike the laws of the land, are those which guide and direct our loving. Spiritually, we are not punished for our sins or shortcomings. We are punished by them. That is to say, it is when we go off track, or are separated, from our loving nature that we tend to experience imbalance and dis-ease.

More often than not, we simply do not know what good might be right around the corner of any crisis. There are many who are viewing the current global disturbances as creative opportunities to effect solutions to the issues we are facing. This could well turn out to be the most creative and productive era of all human existence. No one person, or even inspired leader, is in direct control of what the future holds. Lack of control for many is scary.

I have noticed those who make gloomy pronouncements about the future want to seem right about their predictions, and in control somehow. It is tempting to buy into the awful-ization. Personal concerns such as: What if I fail? What if I lose all my friends? What if I never find another job? What if my husband/wife rejects me? Those feelings of fear can hold you back from engaging in life, and deriving fulfillment from getting on with what is right in front of you.

So where does empathy come in? Empathy is a form of understanding. Fear cannot abide in an environment where there is understanding. Understanding is being aware of the thoughts that have produced the feelings, and literally standing under or in support of the greater, loving spirit that is present. Empathy and compassion offer you the opportunity to be with those feelings as they are, without any criticism, shame or blame.

Empathy respects your inner strength or innate essence, to know and do what is true for you. In her recent article, Judith Johnson writes about The Power of Bearing Witness. It speaks to empathy in action.

The action may be as simple as holding a hand, listening, smiling, being at one with what is taking place without having to fix it. It takes a certain strength and love to do so. You are not in control. You are cooperating with the love present, in yourself and the other person. This love heals on many levels. You may look beyond what you see on the face of things to recognize something deeper going on, more real, more connected, more intimate, more safe. This vibrant safety I view as the human spirit.

In stressful times, you can extend empathy towards yourself with care, understanding and getting to know how your thoughts are disturbing you. Instead of being critical and condemning towards yourself with blame and judgments about how you think you should be, do or feel differently, you can accept yourself as you are, in that moment. The feelings will change.

Where fear isolates, empathy connects. When you have understanding, you can then use the energy of fear to get active, to do what needs to be completed, to see friends, write a letter, make a phone call, do something for the joy of it.

Instead of fear holding you back, you may find that fear translates into awe and inspiration. The essence of fear is love, awaiting awakening.

We are what we repeatedly do, excellence then is not an act, but a habit.
Aristotle

Do you know someone who is skilled at offering empathy? How do you think empathy can assist the healing process? What are the most effective ways you know to express or receive empathy?

Please follow and like us:
error

Methionine Restricted Diet by Brenda Davis & brendadavisrd.com

Methionine- Restricted Diet… Who needs it?

image_pdfimage_print

Methionine is an essential amino acid — one of the building blocks of protein that cannot be produced by the human body so must come from our food. It is one of two sulfur-containing amino acids (the other is cysteine). Methionine is an intermediary in the synthesis of cysteine, carnitine, taurine, and other compounds. It protects liver cells, and helps to prevent lipid peroxidation, and possibly atherosclerosis and elevated cholesterol. Although methionine is essential to human life, some people benefit by limiting, but not eliminating methionine in their diets. For such individuals a methionine-restricted diet may be advised.

 

Should I be on a methionine-restricted diet?

Some individuals need to restrict methionine due to inherited disorders that affect methionine metabolism. There is growing interest in methionine restricted diets for those who are unaffected by these genetic metabolic disorders. Evidence suggests that such diets could enhance longevity and help to prevent or treat certain chronic health conditions. The most common indications for a methionine-restricted diet are:

 

i) MTHFR variants. MTHFR gene mutations can lead to elevated homocysteine. Methionine restriction is commonly recommended to help reduce homocysteine accumulation.

 

ii) Cancer. While human studies are sparse, there is some evidence that cancer cells grow less robustly, and sometimes undergo apoptosis (cell death) when deprived of methionine.

 

iii) Depression. High methionine intakes can elevate homocysteine levels and risk of depression.

 

iv) Lifespan extension. Low methionine diets increase metabolic flexibility and overall insulin sensitivity and improve lipid metabolism while decreasing systemic inflammation.

 

v) Insulin resistance. Methionine restriction has been shown to reduce adiposity and improve insulin sensitivity.

 

vi) Homocystinuria. This inherited disorder of metabolism often requires a low methionine diet.

 

If methionine-restriction may help kill cancer cells and increase longevity, shouldn’t everyone be on a methionine-restricted diet?

We don’t know for sure, but it is an option for those who are interested in employing a novel dietary strategy for disease risk reduction. While severe methionine restriction is rarely advised, a moderate methionine restriction may be beneficial. The most concentrated methionine sources are animal products such as meat, poultry and fish. You will see from the table below that the eating pattern that is lowest in methionine is a purely plant-based diet or vegan diet. Other vegetarian or near-vegetarian diets are lower in methionine than omnivores diets, but not as low as vegan diets. For most people, simply eating a plant-based diet is likely sufficient for reducing methionine intake. Those with metabolic disorders or other conditions that may warrant methionine restriction can further restrict methionine by limiting high methionine plant-based foods.

 

If a methionine restricted diet is indicated for me, how much methionine should I be eating each day?

The RDA (recommended dietary allowance) for methionine + cysteine (adults 19 yrs+) is 19 mg/kg/day, while the EAR (estimated average requirement) is 15 mg/kg/day. People should not dip too much below these levels as they represent the lower end of what is needed for human health. Methionine-restricted diets allow 800-1200 mg methionine per day for most adults. For methionine alone, 15 mg/kg is thought to be a reasonable lower limit. So, if a therapeutic, methionine-restricted diet is indicated for you, multiply your healthy body weight by 15 to find a level of methionine intake that is appropriate. Let’s say your healthy body weight is 60 kg, you would need 900 mg methionine per day.

 

Are there any downsides to severely restricting methionine?

Absolutely. There is some evidence that a lack of methionine could reduce levels of S-Adenosylmethionine or SAM-e increasing risk of depression. A lack of methionine has also been linked to senile graying of hair. When you restrict methionine you are naturally restricting protein, at least to some degree.  Ensuring sufficient protein is essential to health. Protein is necessary for building, strengthening and repairing body tissues, for making antibodies, hormones, enzymes and other compounds that are critical to every body process.  A lack of protein can result in muscle loss, increased risk of bone fractures and undesirable changes in hair and skin. Seniors tend to absorb protein less efficiently, so they may need to consume 15-25% more protein than other adults in order to absorb the same amount. So while methionine restriction can be beneficial, it is important that we meet our needs for methionine, and for protein.

 

 

METHIONINE IN COMMON FOODS

(SOURCE: THE USDA NUTRIENT DATABASE RELEASE 28)

 

 

Methionine (mg/serving)

0-50 mg

51-100 mg

101-150 mg

151-200 mg

201-250 mg

251-300 mg

301+ mg

 

 

Vegetables

Weight

Measure

Methionine (mg)

Asparagus, cooked

180 g

1 cup

50

Green beans, cooked

125 g

1 cup

29

Yellow beans, cooked

135 g

1 cup

24

Beets, cooked, sliced

170 g

1 cup

32

Broccoli rab, raw, chopped

40 g

1 cup

19

Broccoli, raw, chopped

91 g

1 cup

35

Burdock root, raw

118 g

1 cup

11

Cabbage, chinese, cooked, shredded

179 g

1 cup

15

Cabbage, cooked

150 g

1 cup

9

Carrots, raw, chopped

128 g

1 cup

26

Cauliflower, raw, chopped

107 g

1 cup

21

Celery, raw, chopped

101 g

1 cup

5

Chard, swiss, raw

36 g

1 cup

7

Chard, swiss, cooked

175 g

1 cup

35

Collards, raw

36 g

1 cup

12

Collards, cooked

170 g

1 cup

68

Cucumber, raw

104 g

1 cup

6

Eggplant, cooked

99 g

1 cup

9

Endive, raw

50 g

1 cup

8

Kale, raw, chopped

67 g

1 cup

18

Kale, cooked

130 g

1 cup

23

Kohlrabi, raw

135 g

1 cup

18

Leeks, cooked

124 g

1 leek

12

Lettuce, raw, shredded

36-47 g

1 cup

6-7

Mountain yam, cooked

145 g

1 cup

33

Mushrooms, cooked

156 g

1 cup

34

Mustard greens, cooked

150 g

1 cup

32

Okra, cooked

160 g

1 cup

32

Onions, cooked

210 g

1 cup

23

Parsley, fresh, chopped

60 g

1 cup

25

Pepper, sweet, raw, chopped

149 g

1 cup

9

Pumpkin, cooked, mashed

245 g

1 cup

20

Radicchio, raw

40 g

1 cup

3

Radishes, raw

116 g

1 cup

12

Seaweed, laver, raw

26 g

10 sheets

38

Spinach, raw

30 g

1 cup

16

Squash, summer, cooked

180 g

1 cup

23

Squash, winter, cooked

205 g

1 cup

23

Taro, cooked, sliced

132 g

1 cup

9

Tomatoes, fresh

149 g

1 cup

9

Tomato sauce

245 g

1 cup

17

Turnip greens, cooked

144 g

1 cup

37

Turnips, cooked, cubes

156 g

1 cup

14

Watercress, raw

34 g

1 cup

7

Yam, cooked

136 g

1 cup

27

Yardlong bean, cooked

104 g

1 cup

37

Zucchini, raw, chopped

124 g

1 cup

22

Brussels sprouts, cooked

155 g

1 cup

54

Hearts of palm, canned

146 g

1 cup

61

Potatoes, white + skin

148 g

1 med

56

Spinach, cooked

180 g

1 cup

99

Sweet potato, cooked

200 g

1 cup

74

Corn, sweet, cooked

165

1 cup

112

Peas, cooked

160 g

1 cup

130

Peas, raw

145 g

1 cup

119

Fruits

 

 

 

Apples, raw, sliced

125 g

1 cup

1

Apricots, dried

65 g

0.5 cup

10

Apricots, raw

155 g

1 cup

9

Bananas, raw, mashed

225 g

1 cup

18

Blueberries, raw

148 g

1 cup

18

Cherimoya, raw

160 g

1 cup

34

Cranberries, raw, chopped

110 g

1 cup

3

Dates

147 g

1 cup

32

Figs, raw

64 g

1 large (2.5″)

4

Gogi berries, dried

28 g

5 Tbsp

24

Grapefruit sections

230 g

1 cup

12-18

Grapes, fresh

92 g

1 cup

19

Guava, fresh

165 g

1 cup

26

Kiwi, raw, sliced

180 g

1 cup

43

Limes, raw

67 g

1 fruit

1

Mango, raw

165 g

1 cup

13

Melon, cantaloupe, raw

177 g

1 cup

21

Melon, honeydew, raw

170 g

1 cup

8

Nectarines, raw, sliced

143 g

1 cup

8

Olives, ripe, jumbo

15 g

1

2

Orange, raw, sections

180 g

1 cup

36

Papaya, raw

145 g

1 cup

3

Peach, raw

154 g

1 cup

15

Pear, Asian, raw

122 g

1 fruit

7

Pear, raw, slices

140 g

1 cup

3

Persimmons, raw

25 g

1 fruit

2

Pineapple, raw, chunks

165 g

1 cup

20

Plantains, raw, sliced

148 g

1 cup

25

Plums, raw, sliced

165 g

1 cup

13

Plums, dried

174 g

1 cup

28

Raisins, seedless

165 g

1 cup

35

Strawberries, raw

152 g

1 cup

3

Tangerines, raw, sections

195 g

1 cup

4

Watermelon, raw, balls

154 g

1 cup

9

Avocado, raw, cubes

150 g

1 cup

57

Figs, dried

149 g

1 cup

51

Jackfruit, raw

165 g

1 cup

56

Legumes

 

 

 

Black-eyed peas, cooked

165 g

1 cup

74

Hummus, homemade

60 g

1/4 cup

48

Miso

17 g

1 Tbsp

22

Okara

122 g

1 cup

50

Soy sauce (tamari)

18 g

1 Tbsp

30

Soy sauce (wheat and soy shoyu, low Na)

14 g

1 Tbsp

13

Soy milk, fortified

243 g

1 cup

39

Fava beans, cooked

170 g

1 cup

105

Lentils, sprouted, raw

77 g

1 cup

81

Lima beans, cooked

170 g

1 cup

116

Pigeon peas, red gram

168 g

1 cup

128

Soybeans, sprouted, cooked

94 g

1 cup

84

Tofu, soft

120 g

2.5 x 2.75 x 1″

101

Tofu, regular (medium firm)

124 g

0.5 cup

134

Tofu, firm (with calcium sulfate and nigari)

126 g

0.5 cup

139

Veggie sausages

50 g

2 links

126

Adzuki beans, cooked

230 g

1 cup

182

Chickpeas, cooked

164 g

1 cup

190

Cowpeas, cooked

171 g

1 cup

188

Kidney beans, cooked

177

1 cup

200

Lentils, cooked

198

1 cup

152

Lupins, cooked

166 g

1 cup

183

Mung beans, cooked

202 g

1 cup

170

Refried beans, canned reduced sodium

238 g

1 cup

155

Split peas, cooked

196 g

1 cup

167

Black turtle beans, cooked

185 g

1 cup

228

Black beans, cooked

172 g

1 cup

229

Cranberry beans, cooked

177 g

1 cup

248

Edamame, cooked

155 g

1 cup

215

Great Northern beans, cooked

177 g

1 cup

221

Navy beans, cooked

182 g

1 cup

201

Pink beans, cooked

169 g

1 cup

230

Small white beans, cooked

179 g

1 cup

242

Veggie burgers or soyburgers

70 g

1 patty

204

Tempeh

166 g

1 cup

290

Tofu, firm (prepared with calcium sulfate)

126 g

0.5 cup

266

White beans, cooked

179 g

1 cup

261

Soybeans, mature, cooked

172 g

 

385

Soy nuts, dry roasted

93 g

1 cup

497

Grains

 

 

 

Hominy, yellow

160 g

1 cup

50

Tapioca, uncooked

38 g

0.25 cup

1

Noodles, japanese, soba, cooked

114 g

1 cup

82

Barley. cooked

157

1 cup

68

Buckwheat groats, cooked

168 g

1 cup

74

Cornmeal

39 g

0.25 cup

64

Pasta, wheat, cooked

124 g

1 cup

79

Pasta, gluten-free, cooked, corn and quinoa

166 g

1 cup

98

Pasta, gluten-free, cooked, corn

140 g

1 cup

77

Sorghum grain, uncooked

48 g

0.25 cup

81

Triticale, uncooked

48 g

0.25 cup

98

Rice, white, long grain

158 g

1 cup

100

Amaranth, uncooked

48 g

0.25 cup

109

Millet, cooked

174 g

1 cup

122

Oats, uncooked

39 g

0.25 cup

122

Oat bran, cooked

219 g

1 cup

109

Pasta, gluten-free, cooked, brown rice

169 g

1 cup

134

Pasta, gluten-free, cooked, corn and rice

141 g

1 cup

102

Rice, brown, long grain

202 g

1 cup

117

Spelt, uncooked

44 g

0.25 cup

112

Wheat bran

58 g

1 cup

136

Wheat, hard, uncooked

48 g

0.25 cup

111

Wheat, sprouted

108 g

1 cup

125

Quinoa, cooked

185 g

1 cup

178

Kamut, cooked

172 g

1 cup

167

Wild rice, cooked

164 g

1 cup

195

Teff, uncooked

48 g

0.25 cup

207

Teff, cooked

252 g

1 cup

315

Nuts

 

 

 

Acorns, dried

28.35 g

1 ounce

39

Almonds

28.35 g

1 ounce

44

Almond butter

16 g

1 Tbsp

20

Cashew butter

16 g

1 Tbsp

50

Chestnuts, dried, European

28.35 g

1 ounce

33

Coconut, fresh, shredded

80 g

1 cup

50

Coconut, dried, shredded

28.35 g

1 ounce

37

Coconut water

240 g

1 cup

31

Macadamia nuts

28.35 g

1 ounce

7

Coconut milk, canned

240 g

1 cup

86

Hazelnuts

28.35 g

1 ounce

63

Pecans

28.35

1 ounce

54

Pine nuts

28.35 g

1 ounce

59

Peanuts, dry roasted

28.35 g

1 ounce

82

Walnuts, English

28.35 g

1 ounce

67

Cashews

28.35 g

1 ounce

103

Pistachio nuts

28.35 g

1 ounce

102

Brazil nuts

28.35 g

1 ounce

319

Seeds

 

 

 

Tahini (sesame seed butter), raw

15 g

1 Tbsp

88

Flaxseeds

28.35

1 ounce

105

Sunflower seeds

28.35 g

1 ounce

119

Chia seeds

28.35 g

1 ounce

167

Pumpkin seeds

28.35 g

1 ounce

171

Sesame seeds

28.35 g

1 ounce

159

Hempseeds (about 3 Tbsp)

28.35 g

1 ounce

264

Animal products

 

 

 

Eggs

33 g

1 large

132

Cheese, brie

28.35

1 ounce

168

Cheese, gouda

28.35

1 ounce

204

Milk, 1%

245 g

1 cup

215

Milk, 3.25%

244 g

1 cup

203

Yogurt, low fat, fruit

170

6 ounces

219

Cheese, parmesan, hard

28.35

1 ounce

272

Yogurt, plain, skim milk

170

6 ounces

287

Beef, lean, cooked

85 g

3 ounces

648

Chicken breast, cooked

85 g

3 ounces

675

Crab, cooked

134 g

1 leg

730

Fish, cod

85 g

3 ounces

448

Fish, salmon

85 g

3 ounces

640

Fish, tuna, canned

85 g

3 ounces

733

Ham, cooked

85 g

3 ounces

435

Lobster, cooked

145 g

1 cup

689

Pork, cooked

85 g

3 ounces

609

Shrimp, cooked

85 g

3 ounces

565

Turkey, roasted

85 g

3 ounces

670

 

NOTES:

  1. These figures in this table were sourced from the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 28. http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/nutrients/index

 

  1. The chart is set up using food groups (e.g. vegetables, fruits, legumes, etc.). Within each group, you will notice a variety of colors which represent different categories of methionine concentration (see key that precedes the chart). Within each color category, foods appear in alphabetical order.

 

Selected References

Cavuoto P, Fenech MF. A review of methionine dependency and the role of methionine restriction in cancer growth control and life-span extension. Cancer Treat Rev. 2012 Oct;38(6):726-36.

Durando X, Thivat E, Gimbergues P, Cellarier E, Abrial C, Dib M, Tacca O, Chollet P. [Methionine dependency of cancer cells: a new therapeutic approach?].  Bull Cancer. 2008 Jan;95(1):69-76.

Hasek BE, Stewart LK, Henagan TM, Boudreau A, Lenard NR, Black C, Shin J, Huypens P, Malloy VL, Plaisance EP, Krajcik RA, Orentreich N, Gettys TW. Dietary  methionine restriction enhances metabolic flexibility and increases uncoupled respiration in both fed and fasted states. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010 Sep;299(3):R728-39.

Orgeron ML, Stone KP, Wanders D, Cortez CC, Van NT, Gettys TW. The impact of dietary methionine restriction on biomarkers of metabolic health. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2014;121:351-76.

Patil YN, Dille KN, Burk DH, Cortez CC, Gettys TW. Cellular and molecular remodeling of inguinal adipose tissue mitochondria by dietary methionine restriction. J Nutr Biochem. 2015 Nov;26(11):1235-47.

Plaisance EP, Greenway FL, Boudreau A, Hill KL, Johnson WD, Krajcik RA, Perrone CE, Orentreich N, Cefalu WT, Gettys TW. Dietary methionine restriction increases fat oxidation in obese adults with metabolic syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 May;96(5):E836-40.

Tapia-Rojas C, Lindsay CB, Montecinos-Oliva C, Arrazola MS, Retamales RM, Bunout D, Hirsch S, Inestrosa NC. Is L-methionine a trigger factor for Alzheimer’s-like neurodegeneration?: Changes in A? oligomers, tau phosphorylation, synaptic proteins, Wnt signaling and behavioral impairment in wild-type mice. Mol Neurodegener. 2015 Nov 21;10(1):62.

Trimmer EE. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase: biochemical characterization  and medical significance. Curr Pharm Des. 2013;19(14):2574-93.

Wanders D, Burk DH, Cortez CC, Van NT, Stone KP, Baker M, Mendoza T, Mynatt RL, Gettys TW. UCP1 is an essential mediator of the effects of methionine restriction on energy balance but not insulin sensitivity. FASEB J. 2015 Jun;29(6):2603-15.

Please follow and like us:
error

Life Extension Benefits of Methionine Restriction by Ben Best & benbest.com

Life Extension Benefits of Methionine Restriction

by Ben Best

  1. METHIONINE BASICS
  2. METHIONINE RESTRICTION EFFECTS
  3. METHIONINE RESTRICTION FOOD DATA
  4. METHIONINE RESTRICTION DIET
HEART MUSCLE METHIONINE
[HEART MUSCLE METHIONINE]

I. METHIONINE BASICS

Methionine is the only essential amino acid containing sulfur. Methionine is the precursor of the other sulfur-containing amino acids: cysteine, taurine, homocysteine, and cystathione. Methionine is essential for the synthesis of proteins and many other biomoleules required for survival. Rats fed a diet without methionine develop fatty liver disease which can be corrected by methionine supplements [DIGESTIVE DISEASES AND SCIENCES; Oz,HS; 53(3):767-776 (2008)]. Dietary methionine is essential for DNA methylation. Reduced DNA methylation results in genetic instability, aberrant gene expression, and increased cancer.

The above paragraph is the first paragraph from the section on methionine in my article dealing with the Methionine Cycle. Material in that article is useful background for the information below. Note that there is an inverse correlation between lifespan and the methionine content of protein in the heart muscle of eight mammalian species [MECHANISMS OF AGEING AND DEVELOPMENT; Ruiz,MC; 126(10):1106-1114 (2005)]. The methionine content of the milk of cows is higher than that of primates, and the methionine content of the milk of humans and great apes is lower than that of other primates [JOURNAL OF NUTRITION; Davis,TA; 124:1126 (1994)]. Methionine restriction has been shown to increase the replicative lifespan (reduce the replicative senescence) of human fibroblasts [AGING CELL; Koziel,R; 13(6):1038-1048 (2014)].

The sulfur-containing amino acids methionine and cysteine are the most readily oxidized of any of the amino acids — both as free amino acids or in proteins. Methionine is oxidized to methionine sulfoxide, but methionine sulfoxide reductases enzymatically regenerate methionine [BIOPHYSICA ET BIOCHEMICA ACTA; Lee,BC; 1790 (11): 1471-1477 (2009)].

(return to contents)

II. METHIONINE RESTRICTION EFFECTS

Substantial evidence indicates that as much as half of the life-extension benefits of CRAN (Calorie Restriction with Adequate Nutrition) are due to restriction of the single amino acid methionine. In a study of rats given 20% the dietary methionine of control rats, mean lifespan increased 42% and maximum lifespan increased 44% [THE FASEB JOURNAL;Richie,JP; 8(15):1302-1307 (1994)]. Blood glutathione levels were 81% higher in the methionine-restricted rats at maturity, and 164% higher in old age. Long-lived Ames dwarf mice have an enhanced methionine metabolism that increases tissue glutathione (GSH) [MECHANISMS OF AGING AND DISEASE; Uthus,EO; 127(5):444-450 (2006)]. Neither the long-lived growth hormone receptor knock-out mouse nor the Ames dwarf mouse show additonal lifespan extension with methionine restriction, suggesting that stimulation of protein synthesis by either methionine or growth hormone shortens lifespan [AGING CELL; Brown-Borg,HM; 13(6):1019-1027 (2014)].

In other studies, methionine-restricted rats showed greater insulin sensitivity and reduced fat deposition [AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY; Hasek,BE; 299:R728-R739 (2010)EXPERIMENTAL GERONTOLOGY; Sanchez-Roman,I; 48(10):1030-1042 (2013), and AGING CELL; Malloy,VL; 5(4):305-314 (2006)]. Methionine-restricted rats lost weight, despite greater food consumption, because of heat loss associated with metabolically inefficient conversion of glucose to fat [Hasek, Ibid.]

An experiment on mice given 35% the methionine of controls showed only a 7% increase in median life span [JOURNALS OF GERONTOLOGY; Sun,L; 64(7):711-722 (2009)]. Another mouse study showed lowered serum insulin, IGF−1, glucose, and thyroid hormone for methionine at one-third the normal intake. There was significant mouse mortality for methionine less than one-third normal intake, but with one-third intake of methionine maximum lifespan was significantly increased [AGING CELL; Miller,RA; 4(3):119-125 (2005)].

Rats generally show greater longevity benefits from CRAN than mice. Piglets showed comparable benefits to rats in a two-week study, including decreased reactive oxygen species in mitochondrial complex I and reduced apoptosis-inducing factor [EXPERIMENTAL GERONTOLOGY; Ying,Y; 65:35-41 (2015)]. Methionine-restricted rats had increased FGF21, showing many of the same benefits as FGF21-treated rats, including improved insulin sensitivity, reduced adiposity, more mitochondria, and AMPK activation [JOURNAL OF NUTRIGENETICS AND NUTRIGENOMICS; Perrone,CE; 5:132-157 (2012)].

Mitochondrial free radical generation is believed by many biogerontologists to be a significant contributor to aging damage. Rats given 20% the dietary methionine of control rats show significantly decreased free radical generation from complex I and complex III of liver mitochondria as well as from complex I of heart mitochondria — associated with reduced oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA and protein [THE FASEB JOURNAL;Sanz,A; 20(8):1064-1073 (2006)]. These results are comparable to the reduced mitochondrial free radical generation seen in CRAN rats [ENDOCRINOLOGY; Gredilla,R; 146(9):3713-3717 (2005)]. Rats given 60% rather than 20% of the methionine of control rats showed nearly the same amount of reduced mitochondrial free radical generation and damage [BIOCHEMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA; Lopez-Torres,M; 1780(11):1337-1347 (2008)]. Body weight was not reduced with 60% dietary methionine, leading to the conclusion that such reduction would not result in reduced growth in children [REJUVENATION RESEARCH; Caro,P; 12(6):421-434 (2009)]. It was concluded that methionine restriction is the sole reason for reduced mitochondrial free radical generation and damage associated with CRAN [Ibid.] and protein restriction [BIOGERONTOLOGY; Caro,P; 9(3):183-196 (2008)]. Rats methionine-restricted by 40% rather than by 80% showed similar benefits, but without the negative impact on growth, puberty, or body size seen with 80% methionine restriction [JOURNAL OF BIOENERGETICS AND BIOMEMBRANES; Sanchez-Roman,I; 63(6):699-708 (2011)].

A human clinical trial on cancer patients given the methionine-reduced supplement powder Hominex-2 showed a 75% decrease in plasma methionine [NUTRITION AND CANCER; Epner,DE; 42(2):158-166 (2002)], whereas a clinical trial using Hominex-2 on metabolic syndrome patients resulted on only a 14% decrease [JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM; Plaisance,EP; 96(5):E836=E840 (2011)], probably due to poor palatability and low compliance. Nonetheless, the metabolic syndrome patients showed an average 27% increase in plasma adiponectin. Cancer cells are more sensitive to methionine restriction than are normal cells [NUTRITION AND CANCER; Epner,DE; 42(2):158-166 (2002)]. Hominex-2 contains corn syrup solids as the primary ingredient. Cysteine content in Hominex-2 may reverse the effects of methionine restriction [JOURNAL OF NUTRIGENETICS AND NUTRIGENOMICS; Perrone,CE; 5:132-157 (2012)].

Further evidence for the suggestion that methionine oxidation plays a significant role in lifespan can be found in the considerable lifespan extension benefits seen in transgenic fruit flies that overexpress a gene for repairing oxidized methionine in protein [PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (USA); Ruan,H; 99(5):2748 (2002)]. The sulfur-containing amino acids methionine and cyteine are more easily oxidized in proteins than other amino acids [JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY; Hoshi,T; 531:1 (2001)], which is apparently related to the reduced free radical generation in mitochondria seen in methionine restriction. Both the fruit fly experiment and the methionine restriction experiments indicate a significant impact on lifespan from methionine oxidation.

It has been suggested that glycine supplementation has the same effect as methionine restriction. An experiment with glycine supplementation in rats showed a 30% extension in maximum lifespan [FASEB JOURNAL; Brind,J; 25:528.2 (2011)]. Additionally, three grams of glycine daily has been shown to improve sleep quality in young (average age 31) female Japanese adults [SLEEP AND BIOLOGICAL RHYTHM; Inagawa,K; 4:75-77 (2006)]

(return to contents)

TABLE 1 Lysine, Threonine and Methionine in Food
(milligrams amino acid per gram protein)
Food Sulfur-containing amino acid Lysine Threonine
Nuts,Seeds 46 ± 17 45 ± 14 36 ± 3
Animal foods 38 85 ± 12 44
Cereals 37 ± 5 31 ± 10 32 ± 4
Fruits 27 ± 6 25 ± 12 29 ± 7
Legumes 25 ± 3 64 ± 10 38 ± 3

III. METHIONINE RESTRICTION FOOD DATA

The adjoining table (my Table 1) from [AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION; Young,VR; 59(suppl):1203s-1212s (1994)] indicates the essential amino acids most likely to be limited in plant protein foods. Cereal protein contains comparable sulfur-containing amino acids (including methionine) per gram as animal foods, whereas fruit and legume protein contain about 65% as much methionine. Nuts and seeds are particularly high in methionine, on average 20% higher in methionine than animal protein, although the absolute amount of protein in animal foods tends to be higher, which makes total methionine intake generally higher in animal foods. Vegetables are not shown in Table 1, but as described in Table 4 in the AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION paper from which Table 1 is taken, vegetables are on average in the 1-2% range for percent protein and fruits are in the 0.5-1% protein range — so neither fruits nor vegetables should be considered serious sources of protein (green peas are an exceptional vegetable with 5.4% protein, and avacado is an exceptional fruit with 2% protein). Cereals are typically 7-13% protein and legumes are typically 20-30% protein (soybeans are exceptionally high in protein even for legumes, being in the range of 35-45% protein).

The dry weight of beef, broccoli, peanuts, and peas is about one-third protein, whereas cereals and fruits are less than 10% dry weight protein. Unlike many other plant proteins, legumes are not particularly low in lysine, and they are close to animal protein in threonine content. Vegetarians attempting to achieve complete protein often combine cereals (which are relatively high in methionine for plant protein) with legumes (which are relatively high in lysine for plant protein).

PHYTIC ACID
[PHYTIC ACID]

Lentils and other beans contain high amounts of phytic acid (phosphate-rich inositol), which can chelate positively-charged multivalent mineral ions (especially iron, zinc, magnesium, and calcium), preventing absorption. Soaking lentils and beans in warm water overnight not only makes them easier to cook, it allows some of the phytates to be soaked-out (and thrown-away with the water). Acidic solution (such as vinegar) better removes the phytates. Cooking also helps destroy phytates.

Although it would be very difficult to determine a diet providing optimum methionine for maximum human lifespan — even on the basis of rat experiments — evidence is convincing that reducing dietary methionine can help extend lifespan. The Table 2, listing milligrams of methionine per 100 grams of food (rather than per gram of protein, as in Table 1), could be helpful. Table values are based on [FOOD VALUES OF PORTIONS COMMONLY USED by Jean Pennington (1989)].

 

TABLE 2 Methionine in Foods
(milligrams/100 grams of food)
Food Methionine
Cheese, parmesan (dry) 971
Skim milk (dry) 907
Tuna (light) 862
Cheese, Swiss (processed) 792
Corned beef 711
Cheese, Cheddar 661
Salmon 631
Cheese, American (processed) 579
Extra lean beef 572
Walnuts, black 479
Egg white 394
Whole boiled egg 392
Pistashio nuts 386
Peanuts 289
Walnuts, Persian (English) 286
Cashew nuts 279
Cheerios 254
Oatmeal 250
Broad (Fava) beans 239
Soybeans 224
Barley 208
Tofu (firm) 202
Grape nuts (cereal) 200
Shredded wheat (cereal) 193
Wheaties (cereal) 168
Rice 167
Almonds 161
Yogurt 155
White beans 146
Black turtle beans 141
Navy beans 131
Kidney (red) beans 130
Chickpeas (garbanzos) 116
Blackeyed peas (cowpeas) 110
Lima beans 100
Macadamia nuts 93
Millet 85
Peas (raw) 82
Adzuki beans 79
Lentils 77
Corn 70
Spaghetti 51
Sweet potato (baked) 42
Mushrooms 40
Avacado 39
Mung beans 35
Broccoli 34
Potato 33
Pinto beans 33
Amaranth 30
Cauliflower 28
Oranges 22
Tomato paste 19
Kale 18
Banana 17
Blueberries 11
Onion 10
Tomato 8
Apple 2
Grapefruit 2
Strawberries 1

 

The absolute methionine content of a food is better evaluated knowing what the water, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, and protein content of that food is. A higher protein content and a lower methionine content is better than having a low methionine content because the food is low in protein and high in water, fat, or carbohydrate. Lima beans and rice are relatively high in both carbohydrate and methionine. Onions and strawberries are low in methionine, but are high in water and low in protein.

The data for Table 3 is taken from [NUTRITIVE VALUE OF FOODS; USDA Bulletin 72 (1981)], but is adjusted to give percent protein by dry weight. Percent water in the food is not related to the other columns. Fiber content is not given, and I suspect that fiber is equated with carbohydrate. I may have made a few errors, and I suspect that the data contains a few errors (garbage-in, garbage-out). But for the most part I think the data is good, my transcription is accurate, and my calculations are correct.

 

TABLE 3 Percent Macronutrients (dry weight)
and Percent Water (whole food)
Food Protein Carbohydrate Fat Water
Egg, white 100 0 0 88
Tuna solid,white, water 97 0 3 63
Salmon (baked) 81 0 19 67
Tuna chunk,light,oil 77 0 23 61
Corned beef 69 0 31 59
Ground beef,lean 57 0 43 56
Cheese, Parmesan (grated) 55 5 40 18
Ham 54 0 46 53
Ground beef,regular 53 0 47 54
Cheese, Swiss 47 7 47 42
Egg, whole 46 8 46 75
Yogurt, nonfat 43 57 0 80
Soybeans 41 20 39 71
Cheese, American processed 40 0 60 39
Milk, nonfat 39 59 2 91
Sesame seeds 29 14 57 5
Lentils, cooked 29 69 2 72
Sausage 29 0 71 45
Peas, split 27 71 2 70
Walnut, black 26 13 61 4
Frankfurter 26 5 68 54
Chickpeas (garbanzos) 23 75 6 60
Pinto beans, cooked 23 75 2 65
Pistachio nuts 22 26 52 4
Mushroom, cooked 25 67 8 91
Lima beans, cooked 24 74 2 64
Cashew nuts 16 35 49 2
Macaroni (enriched) 15 83 2 64
Tomato paste 16 80 3 74
Bread, whole wheat 16 76 7 38
Bread,1/3 wht (Pmnk) 16 78 6 37
Spaghetti (enriched), ckd 15 83 2 64
Egg noodles 15 80 4 70
Walnut, Persian (English) 15 19 65 4
Bread,2/3 wht (rye) 14 79 7 37
Onions 14 85 0 91
Corn 13 87 0 76
Potato (baked+skin) 9 91 0 71
Rice, brown 9 89 2 70
Avacado flesh (Florida) 8 46 46 80
Strawberries (raw) 8 83 8 92
Rice, white 7 93 0 73

 

Brown rice would be more nutritious than white rice, except that the fats in germ that is removed to make white rice can go rancid. Ingestion of Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGES) is detrimental to health.

Table 4gives the percent fat obtained for selected items in the above table, and breaks down the fat into percent saturated, monosaturated, and polyunsaturated fat. Numbers are rounded to the nearest whole number, which is why the total percentages don’t always add to 100. Monosaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats are preferred to unsaturated fats except where there is rancidity. Again, ingestion of Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGES) is detrimental to health. I had no data for non-fat cheese, the only kind of cheese that I eat.

 

TABLE 4 Percent Fat Types
(rounded)
Food Saturated Monosaturated Polyunsaturated % Fat
Cheese, American processed 67 30 4 52
Ground beef,lean 45 50 4 56
Egg, whole 44 52 4 48
Corned beef 44 52 4 29
Frankfurter 39 51 10 63
Ham 39 49 12 45
Sausage 37 50 11 69
Salmon (baked) 24 48 28 18
Tuna chunk,light,oil 22 30 48 18
Avacado flesh (Florida) 22 60 18 80
Cashew nuts 21 62 18 63
Soybeans 15 22 62 33
Pistachio nuts 13 71 16 52
Walnut, Persian (English) 9 24 66 64
Walnut, black 7 24 70 59

 

Table 5 gives relative proportions of all of the essential amino acids (plus tyrosine) for some representative high-protein animal foods as well as for some low-methionine plant foods.

Lysine is given after methionine because lysine is most often the limiting amino acid (the essential amino acid found in the smallest quantity relative to requirement) in cereals, nuts, and seeds — but lysine in abundant in legumes, for which methionine is typically the limiting amino acid [AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION; Young,VR; 59(suppl):1203s-1212s (1994)]. Lysine is therefore listed second in the table. Leucine is listed third because of its paradoxical ability to reduce fat in high doses [DIABETES; Zhang,Y; 56(6):1647-1654 (2007)] and low doses [DIABETES; Cheng,Y; 59(1):17-25 (2010)]. Leucine and threonine are the limiting amino acid in vegetables and fruits, although vegetables and fruits are too low in protein to be considered significant proteins sources. Trytophan restriction has been shown to have a modest (compared to methionine restriction) ability to extend lifespan in rats [ MECHANISMS OF AGEING AND DEVELOPMENT; Ooka,H; 43(1):79-98 (1988)], reputedly by opposing an age-related increase in brain serotonin.

Tyramine was evaluated because of claims that high dietary tyramine could have adverse reactions with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (I take deprenyl). But none of the foods listed have seriously high levels of tyramine, so tyramine is not really a concern.

Again, this data is taken from  [FOOD VALUES OF PORTIONS COMMONLY USED by Jean Pennington (1989)]. I have adjusted the Pennington data to be standardized for 100 grams of food, rather than reproducing the variable quantities of food given, which makes comparison difficult. I may have made transcription errors, but probably not many (if any).

 

TABLE 5 Low Methionine Beans/Grains
Essential amino acids (+tyramine)
(milligrams/100 grams food)
Met = Methionine
Lys = Lysine
Leu = Leucine
Thr = Threonine
Try = Typtophan
Iso = Isoleucine
Phe = Phenylalanine
Val = Valine
His = Histidine
Tyr = Tyrosine
Food Met Lys Leu Thr Try Iso Phe Val His Tyr
Skim milk,dry 907 2867 3543 1633 510 2187 1746 2420 980 1747
American cheese 579 2225 1982 729 329 1036 1139 1343 914 1229
Walnuts, black 479 732 1729 739 325 993 1086 1304 489 761
Egg white 394 642 882 451 155 618 636 761 230 406
Walnuts, Persian (English) 286 293 1007 454 193 575 636 732 364 446
Cashew nuts 279 829 1304 600 239 743 804 1054 404 496
Soybeans, cooked 224 1108 1355 723 242 807 869 831 449 630
Whey, dry 200 967 1067 567 233 567 567 300 233 367
Rice, cooked 167 292 542 333 83 292 375 458 208 375
Yogurt, nonfat 169 514 578 235 32 312 312 474 142 289
Kidney (red) beans 130 595 693 365 103 383 469 454 241 244
Chickpeas (garbanzos) 116 593 631 329 85 380 475 372 244 220
Blackeyed peas (cowpeas) 110 523 592 294 95 314 451 368 240 250
Lima beans, cooked 100 523 673 337 92 411 470 469 238 276
Peas (raw) 82 317 323 203 37 195 200 235 106 113
Adzuki beans 79 567 632 255 72 300 398 387 198 224
Lentils, cooked 77 779 809 400 100 482 551 554 314 298
Corn, cooked 70 141 359 133 23 133 155 191 91 126
Broadbeans (Fava) 62 468 572 270 72 306 97 338 193 241
Spaghetti, cooked 51 109 220 133 41 170 177 _ 80 113
Mushrooms 40 211 129 94 46 82 80 97 57 46
Potato, baked 33 126 124 75 32 84 92 117 45 77
Pinto beans, cooked 33 564 656 346 97 363 444 430 229 231
Amaranth 30 109 167 85 27 102 114 118 44 68
Avacado flesh (Florida) 29 75 99 53 17 57 54 78 23 39
Mung beans, cooked 25 123 131 58 27 39 98 85 97 52
Tomato paste 19 108 105 86 26 73 80 77 60 51
Onion 10 56 41 28 18 42 30 28 19 29

 

Confusion can be caused by the variable amounts of proteins in the foods. Some foods have high water content (such as onion), or high carbohydrate content (such as rice), or high fat content (such as nuts). To compare relative amounts of methionine in the proteins in the foods, I have created Table 6 in which I have adjusted the values to reflect milligrams of amino acid per gram of protein, rather than the per 100 grams of food used in the previous table. To do this, I first calculate dry weight [(100 − % water) / 100] and then divide by % protein. (Note that Persian/English walnuts contain 60% the protein of black walnuts, mostly because of higher fat content. This creates a misimpression that Persian/English walnuts are much lower in methionine than black walnuts.)

I make no guarantee that I have made no transcription errors in manually copying data from either table to my calculator.

 

>

TABLE 6 Low Methionine Beans/Grains
Essential amino acids
(milligrams/gram protein)
Met = Methionine
Lys = Lysine
Leu = Leucine
Thr = Threonine
Try = Typtophan
Iso = Isoleucine
Phe = Phenylalanine
Val = Valine
His = Histidine
% P = % Protein (dry weight)
% W = % Water
Food Met Lys Leu Thr Try Iso Phe Val His % P % W
Rice (dry) 24 42 77 48 12 42 54 65 30 7 70
Milk,nonfat 24 75 92 43 13 57 45 63 26 40 91
Cheese, American 24 91 81 30 13 42 47 55 37 40 39
Corn, cooked 22 45 115 43 7.4 43 50 61 29 13 76
Sesame seeds 21 20 47 25 13 26 33 34 18 29 5
Walnuts, Persian (English) 20 20 70 32 13 40 44 51 25 15 4
Walnuts, black 19 29 69 30 13 40 44 52 20 26 4
Yogurt, skim 19 60 67 27 3.7 36 36 55 17 43 80
Soybeans, cooked 19 93 114 61 20 68 73 70 38 41 71
Cashew nuts 18 53 83 38 15 47 51 67 26 16 2
Avacado flesh (Florida) 18 47 62 33 11 36 34 49 14 8 80
Mushroom, cooked 18 94 57 42 20 36 36 45 25 25 91
Chickpeas (garbanzos) 13 64 69 36 9.2 41 52 40 27 23 60
Potato 13 48 48 29 12 32 35 45 17 9 71
Lentils, cooked 9.5 96 100 49 12 59 68 68 39 29 72
Spaghetti, cooked 9.4 20 41 25 7.6 31 33 _ 15 15 64
Onion 8 45 33 22 14 34 24 22 15 14 91
Tomato paste 4.5 26 25 21 6 18 19 19 14 16 74
Pinto beans, cooked 4 70 81 43 12 45 55 53 28 23 65

 

I am searching for foods that are high in protein, but low in methionine, as a source of protein. Preferably the foods should be high in the essential amino acids (other than methionine), and low in fat (especially saturated fat) and low in carbohydrate. As sources of protein, the data in the Table 6 are important in proportion to the percent protein in the food, especially when the water content is low. As long as protein is adequate in the diet overall, other foods that are low in protein and high in water are not much of a concern from a methionine restriction point of view. Legumes offer the best tradeoff of low methionine, and high protein (high essential amino acids), particularly lentils and pinto beans. Adzuki beans would be a contender except that the high fiber content makes them hard to process. I prefer to get my fiber from other sources.

Table 7 was created by dividing methionine amount into the amounts of the other essential amino acids shown in Table 5. Thus, the numbers in the lysine column reflect how many times the lysine content of the food exceed the methionine content.

 

TABLE 7 Ratio of Essential amino acids to methionine
(Essential amino acids)/methionine
Lys = Lysine
Leu = Leucine
Thr = Threonine
Try = Typtophan
Iso = Isoleucine
Phe = Phenylalanine
Val = Valine
His = Histidine
Food Lys Leu Thr Try Iso Phe Val His
Pinto beans, cooked 17 20 10 2.9 11 13 13 6.9
Lentils, cooked 10 11 5.2 1.3 6.3 7.2 7.2 4.1
Broadbeans (Fava) 7.5 9.2 4.3 1.2 6.4 1.6 5.5 3.1
Adzuki beans 7.2 8.0 3.2 0.91 3.8 5.0 4.9 2.5
Tomato paste 5.7 5.5 4.5 1.4 3.8 4.2 4.1 3.2
Onion 5.6 4.1 2.8 1.8 4.2 3.0 2.8 1.9
Mushrooms 5.3 3.2 2.6 1.2 2.0 2.0 2.4 1.4
Lima beans, cooked 5.2 6.7 3.4 0.92 4.1 4.7 4.7 2.4
Chickpeas (garbanzos) 5.1 5.4 2.8 0.73 3.3 4.1 3.2 2.1
Soybeans, cooked 4.9 6.0 3.2 1.1 3.6 3.9 3.7 2.0
Mung beans, cooked 4.9 5.2 2.3 1.1 1.6 3.9 3.4 3.9
Blackeyed peas (cowpeas) 4.8 5.4 2.7 0.86 2.9 4.1 3.3 2.2
Whey, dry 4.8 5.3 2.8 1.2 2.8 1.5 1.2 1.8
Kidney (red) beans 4.6 5.3 2.8 0.79 2.9 3.6 3.5 1.9
Peas (raw) 3.9 3.9 2.5 0.45 2.4 2.4 2.9 1.3
Potato, baked 3.8 3.8 2.3 0.97 2.5 2.8 3.5 1.4
Cheese, American 3.8 3.4 1.3 0.57 1.8 2.0 2.3 1.6
Amaranth 3.6 5.6 2.8 0.9 3.4 3.8 3.9 1.5
Skim milk,dry 3.2 3.9 1.8 0.56 2.4 1.9 2.7 1.1
Cashew nuts 3.0 4.7 2.2 0.86 2,7 2.9 3.8 1.4
Yogurt, nonfat 3.0 3.4 1.4 0.19 1.8 1.8 2.8 0.84
Avacado flesh (Florida) 2.6 3.4 1.8 0.59 2.0 1.9 2.7 0.79
Spaghetti, cooked 2.1 4.3 2.6 0.80 3.3 3.5 _ 1.6
Corn, cooked 2.0 5.1 1.9 0.32 1.9 2.2 2.7 1.3
Rice, cooked 1.7 3.2 2.0 0.50 1.7 2.2 2.7 1.2
Egg white 1.6 2.2 1.1 0.39 1.6 1.6 1.9 0.58
Walnuts, black 1.5 3.6 1.5 0.68 2.1 2.3 2.7 1.0
Walnuts, Persian (English) 1.0 3.5 1.6 0.67 2.0 2.2 2.6 1.3

 

(return to contents)

IV. METHIONINE RESTRICTION DIET

Pinto beans and lentils are the high-protein foods that show the best low-methionine, high-lysine profile, by a large margin. Lentils, however, are easier to soak before cooking to remove phytates, and produce a bit less odiferous flatulance than pinto beans. Both legumes, however, are high in phytic acid and raffinose oligosaccharides. Humans lack the enzyme to digest raffinose, which passes to the lower intestine where bacteria possessing the digestive enzyme create gases which can be quite odiferous.

Soaking pinto beans for 16 hours at room temperature only reduces raffinose oligosaccharides by 10%, and 90 minutes of cooling only cuts the raffinose oligosaccharide content in half [JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY; Song,D; 54(4):1296-1301 (2006)].

Just as the objective of calorie restriction is not to live without calories, methionine is an essential amino acid that can be reduced to 60% normal consumption to obtain most of the benefit [BIOGERONTOLOGY; Caro,P; 9(3):183-196 (2008)]. That dietary objective can be met without the need to consume legumes.

(return to contents)

Please follow and like us:
error